Basic Git Tutorial

Git Tutorial

This tutorial explains the usage of the distributed version control system Git via the command line. The examples were done on Linux (Ubuntu) but should also work on other operating systems like Microsoft Windows.


Table of Contents

1. Git
1.1. What is Git?
1.2. Staging
1.3. Local and remote repositories
1.4. Branching and Merging
1.5. Tools
1.6. Terminology
2. Installation
3. Setup
3.1. User Configuration
3.2. Color Highlighting
3.3. Ignore certain files
3.4. Tracking empty directories with .gitkeep
4. Getting started with Git
4.1. Create content
4.2. Create repository, add and commit
4.3. See differences via diff and commit changes
4.4. Status, Diff and Commit Log
4.5. Correction of commit messages – git amend
4.6. Delete files
5. Working with remote repositories
5.1. Setting up a remote (bare) Git repository
5.2. Push changes to another repository
5.3. Add remote
5.4. Show the existing remote repositories
5.5. Clone your repository
5.6. Pull changes
6. Revert Changes
7. Tagging in Git
8. Branches and Merging
8.1. What are branches?
8.2. Working with Branches
8.3. Merging
8.4. Delete a branch
8.5. Push a branch to remote repository
9. Solving merge conflicts
10. Rebase
10.1. Rebasing commits in the same branch
10.2. Rebasing branches
10.3. Best practice for rebase
11. Create and apply patches
12. Define alias
13. Untrack a file / directory
14. Other useful commands
15. Installing a Git server
16. Online remote repositories
16.1. Cloning remote repositories
16.2. Add more remote repositories
16.3. Remote operations via http and a proxy
17. Git Hosting Provider
17.1. ssh key
17.2. GitHub
17.3. Bitbucket
18. Graphical UI’s for Git

 

1. Git

1.1. What is Git?

Git is a distributed version control system (dvcs) written in the programming language C.

A version control system allows the creation of a history for a collection of files and includes the functionality to revert the collection of files to another state. Another state might be a different collection of files or different content in the files. The collection of files is usually called source code.

A distributed version control system has no central server which stores the data. Every local copy contains the full history of the source code.

You may, for example, change the collection of files to a state from 2 days ago or you may switch between states for experimental features and production issues.

Git keep track of all versions. Therefore you can revert to any point in your source code history.

1.2. Staging

If you modify a file and you want to persist this change in the repository you need to perform two steps. First you need to mark them to be relevant for Git. Afterwards you add this change to the Git repository.

Marking changes as relevant for the version control is called staging or to add them to the index. Adding the changes to the repository is called committing.

For example, if you make a change in a file and want that this change is relevant for the next commit, you have to add the file to the via the git add file command. The git commit -m "your commit message" will commit the marked changes into the Git repository.

1.3. Local and remote repositories

In a distributed version control system everyone has a complete copy of the source code (including the complete history of the source code) and can perform version control operations against this local copy. The use of a dvcs does not require a central code repository.

Git performs commits to your local repository and you can synchronize your repository with other (remote) repositories.Git allows you to clone repositories, e.g. create an exact copy of a repository including the complete history of the source code. Owners of repositories can synchronize changes via push (transferring changes to a remote repository) or pull (getting changes from a remote repository).

1.4. Branching and Merging

Git supports branching, e.g. you can have different versions of your source code. If you want to develop a new feature, you may open a branch in your source code and make the changes in this branch without affecting the main line of your code.

Git allows to merges changes from difference branches. For example you may have a branch called master which contains the source code which you use to build your product which is delivered to your customers. You use another branch called feature_123 to finalize a certain feature and than use the Git merge command to bring the changes into your master branch.

1.5. Tools

Git can be used from the command line. You also find graphical tools, for example EGit for the Eclipse IDE.

1.6. Terminology

The following table provides a summary of important Git terminology.

Table 1. Git Terminology

Term Definition
Repository A repository contains the history, the different versions over time and all different branches and tags. In Git each copy of the repository is a complete repository. The repository allows you to retrieve revisions into your working copy.
Branches A branch is a separate code line with its own history. You can create a new branch from an existing one and change the code independently from other branches. One of the branches is the default (normally named master). The user selects a branch and works in this selected branch, which is called the “working copy”. Selecting a branch is called “checkout a branch”.
Tags A tag points to a certain point in time in a specific branch. With a tag, you can have a named point to which you can always revert, e.g. the coding of 25.01.2009 in the branch “testing”.
Commit You commit your changes into a repository. This creates a new revision which can be retrieved later, for example if you want to see the source code of an older version. Each commit contains the author and committer, thus making it possible to identify the source of the change. The author and committer might be different people.
URL A URL in Git determines the location of the repository.
Revision Represents a version of the source code. Git identifies revisions with SHA1 ids. SHA1 ids are 160 bits long and are represented in hexadecimal. The latest version can be addressed via “HEAD”, the version before that via “HEAD~1” and so on.

2. Installation

On Ubuntu you can install the Git command line tool via the following command:

sudo apt-get install git-core

For other Linux distributions please check your vendor documentation.

A windows version of Git can be found on the msysgit Project site. The URL to this webpage is http://code.google.com/p/msysgit/.

3. Setup

Git allows you to store global settings in a .gitconfig file. This file is located in the user home directory. As mentioned before Git stores the committer and author in each commit. This and additional information can be stored in the global settings.

The following will configure Git so that a certain user and email address is used, enable color coding and tell Git to ignore certain files.

3.1. User Configuration

Configure your user and email for Git via the following command.

# Configure the user which will be used by git
# Of course you should use your name
git config --global user.name "Example Surname"
# Same for the email address
git config --global user.email "your.email@gmail.com"

To make pushing to remote repositories easier and to avoid unnecessary commits, you can use the following commands.

# Set default so that all changes are always pushed to the repository
git config --global push.default "matching"
# Set default so that you avoid unnecessary commits
git config --global branch.autosetuprebase always

To query your Git settings, execute the following command:

git config --list

3.2. Color Highlighting

The following will enable some highlighting for the console.

git config --global color.status auto
git config --global color.branch auto

3.3. Ignore certain files

Git can be configured to ignore certain files and directories. This is configured via the .gitignore file. This file can be in any directory and can contain pattern for files. For example, you can tell Git to ignore the bin directory via the following .gitignore file in the main directory.

You can use certain wildcards in this file. * will match several characters. The . (Dot) parameter will match one character.

# Ignore all bin directories
bin
# Ignore all files ending with ~
*~
# Ignore the target directory
# Matches "target" in any subfolder
target/

You can also setup a global .gitignore file valid for all Git repositories via the core.excludesfile setting.

# Create a ~/.gitignore in your user directory
cd ~/
touch .gitignore

# Exclude bin and .metadata directories
echo "bin" > .gitignore
echo ".metadata" >> .gitignore

# Configure Git to use this file
# as global .gitignore

git config --global core.excludesfile ~/.gitignore

3.4. Tracking empty directories with .gitkeep

Git will ignore empty directories, e.g. do not put them under version control. If you want to track such directories, is it convention to put files called “.gitkeep” in these directories. The file could be called anything; Git assigns no special significance to this name. As the directory now contains a file, Git will include it into its version control mechanism.

4. Getting started with Git

The following will guide you through a typical Git workflow. You will create a few files, create a local Git repository and commit your file into this repository. Afterwards, you clone the repository and push and pull some changes between the repositories. The comments (marked with #) before the commands explain the specific actions.

Open a command line / shell for the operations.

4.1. Create content

The following creates some files with some content that will later be placed under version control.

#Switch to home
cd ~/
# Create a directory
mkdir ~/repo01
# Switch into it
cd repo01
# Create a new directory
mkdir datafiles
# Create a few files
touch test01
touch test02
touch test03
touch datafiles/data.txt
# Put a little text into the first file
ls >test01

4.2. Create repository, add and commit

Every Git repository is stored in the .git folder of the directory in which the Git repository has been created. This directory contains the complete history of the repository. The .git/config file contains the local configuration for the repository.

The following will create a Git repository, add the files to the repository’s index and commit the changes.

# Initialize the local Git repository
git init
# Add all (files and directories) to the Git repository
git add .
# Make a commit of your file to the local repository
git commit -m "Initial commit"
# Show the log file
git log

4.3. See differences via diff and commit changes

The git diff command allows the user to see the changes made. In order to test this, make some changes to a file and check what the git diff command shows to you. Then, commit the changes to the repository.

# Make some changes to the file
echo "This is a change" > test01
echo "and this is another change" > test02

# Check the changes via the diff command 
git diff

# Commit the changes, -a will commit changes for modified files
# but will not add automatically new files
git commit -a -m "These are new changes"

4.4. Status, Diff and Commit Log

The following helps you see the current status and the list of commits in your repository.

# Make some changes in the file
echo "This is a new change" > test01
echo "and this is another new change" > test02

# See the current status of your repository 
# (which files are changed / new / deleted)
git status
# Show the differences between the uncommitted files 
# and the last commit in the current branch
git diff

# Add the changes to the index and commit
git add . && git commit -m "More chaanges - typo in the commit message"

# Show the history of commits in the current branch
git log
# This starts a nice graphical view of the changes
gitk --all

4.5. Correction of commit messages – git amend

The git amend command makes it possible to change the last commit message.

In the above example the commit message was incorrect as it contained a typo. The following will correct this via the--amend parameter.

git commit --amend -m "More changes - now correct"

4.6. Delete files

If you delete a file which is under version control git add .will not pick this file up. You need to use the git commit command with the -a flag or the -A flag in the git add command.

# Create a file and put it under version control
touch nonsense.txt
git add . && git commit -m "a new file has been created"
# Remove the file
rm nonsense.txt
# Try standard way of committing -> will not work 
git add . && git commit -m "a new file has been created"
# Now commit with the -a flag
git commit -a -m "File nonsense.txt is now removed"
# Alternatively you could add deleted files to the staging index via
git add -A . 
git commit -m "File nonsense.txt is now removed"

5. Working with remote repositories

5.1. Setting up a remote (bare) Git repository

We will now create a remote Git repository. Git allows you to store this remote repository either on the network or locally.

A standard Git repository is different from a remote Git repository. A standard Git repository contains the source code and the Git repository. You can work directly in this directory as the repository contains a working copy of all files.

Remote repositories do not contain working copies of the files. They only contain repository files. To create such a repository, set the --bare flag.

In order to simplify the following examples, the Git repository will be created locally in the filesystem.

# Switch to the first repository
cd ~/repo01
# 
git clone --bare . ../remote-repository.git

# Check the content, it is identical to the .git directory in repo01
ls ~/remote-repository.git

5.2. Push changes to another repository

Make some changes and push them from your first repository to the remote repository via the following commands.

# Make some changes in the first repository
cd ~/repo01

# Make some changes in the file
echo "Hello, hello. Turn your radio on" > test01
echo "Bye, bye. Turn your radio off" > test02

# Commit the changes, -a will commit changes for modified files
# but will not add automatically new files
git commit -a -m "Some changes"

# Push the changes
git push ../remote-repository.git

5.3. Add remote

You can always push to a Git repository via its full URL. But you can also add a “shortname” to a repository via thegit remote add command. origin is a special name which is normally used automatically, if you clone a Git repository. Origin indicates the original repository from which you started. As we started from scratch, this name is still available.

# Add ../remote-repository.git with the name origin
git remote add origin ../remote-repository.git 

# Again some changes
echo "I added a remote repo" > test02
# Commit
git commit -a -m "This is a test for the new remote origin"
# If you do not label a repository it will push to origin
git push origin

5.4. Show the existing remote repositories

To see the existing definitions of the remote repositories, use the following command.

# Show the existing defined remote repositories
git remote

5.5. Clone your repository

Create a new repository in a new directory via the following commands.

# Switch to home
cd ~
# Make new directory
mkdir repo02

# Switch to new directory
cd ~/repo02
# Clone
git clone ../remote-repository.git .

5.6. Pull changes

Pull allows you to get the latest changes from another repository. In your second repository, make some changes, push them to your remote repository and pull these changes to your first repository.

# Switch to home
cd ~

# Switch to second directory
cd ~/repo02
# Make changes
echo "A change" > test01
# Commit
git commit -a -m "A change"
# Push changes to remote repository
# Origin is automatically maintained as we cloned from this repository
git push origin
# Switch to the first repository and pull in the changes
cd ~/repo01
git pull ../remote-repository.git/
# Check the changes
less test01

6. Revert Changes

If you create files in your working copy which you do not want to commit, you can discard them.

# Create a new file with content
touch test04
echo "this is trash" > test04

# Make a dry-run to see what would happen
# -n is the same as --dry-run 
git clean -n

# Now delete
git clean -f

You can check out older revisions of your source code via the commit ID. The commit ID is shown if you enter the git log command. It is displayed behind the commit word.

# Switch to home
cd ~/repo01
# Get the log
git log

# Copy one of the older commits and checkout the older revision via 
git checkout commit_name

If you have not added the changes to the staging index, you can also revert the changes directly.

#Some nonsense change
echo "nonsense change" > test01
# Not added to the staging index. Therefore we can 
# just checkout the old version
git checkout test01
# Check the result
cat test01
# Another nonsense change
echo "another nonsense change" > test01
# We add the file to the staging index
git add test01
# Restore the file in the staging index
git reset HEAD test01
# Get the old version from the staging index
git checkout test01

You can also revert commits via the following command:

# Revert a commit
git revert commit_name

If you deleted a file but you have not yet added it to the index or committed the change, you can check out the file again.

# Delete a file
rm test01
# Revert the deletion
git checkout test01

If you added a file to the index but do not want to commit the file, you can remove it from the index via the git reset file command.

// Create a file
touch incorrect.txt
// Accidently add it to the index
git add .
// Remove it from the index
git reset incorrect.txt
// Delete the file
rm incorrect.txt

If you deleted a directory and you have not yet committed the changes, you can restore the directory via the following command:

git checkout HEAD -- your_dir_to_restore

7. Tagging in Git

Git has the option to tag certain versions in the history so that you find them more easily at a later point in time. Most commonly, this is used to tag a certain version which has been released.

You can list the available tags via the following command:

git tag

You can create a new tag via the following. Via the -m parameter, you specify the description of this tag.

git tag version1.6 -m 'version 1.6'

If you want to use the code associated with the tag, use:

git checkout <tag_name>

8. Branches and Merging

8.1. What are branches?

Git allows you to create branches, e.g. independent copies of the source code which can be changed independently from each other. The default branch is called master.

Git allows you to create branches very fast and cheaply in terms of resource consumption. Developers are encouraged to use branches frequently.

8.2. Working with Branches

The following command lists all locally available branches. The currently active branch is marked with *.

git branch

If you want to see all branches (including remote branches), use the following command.

git branch -a

You can create a new branch via the following.

# Syntax: git branch <name> <hash>
# <hash> in the above is optional 
# if not specified the last commit will be used
# If specified the corresponding commit will be used
git branch testing
# Switch to your new branch
git checkout testing
# Some changes
echo "Cool new feature in this branch" > test01
git commit -a -m "new feature"
# Switch to the master branch
git checkout master
# Check that the content of test01 is the old one
cat test01

8.3. Merging

Merge allows you to combine the changes of two branches. Merge performs a so-called three-way-merge between the latest snapshot of two branches, based on the most recent common ancestor of both.

As a result, you have a new snapshot. You can merge changes from one branch to the current active one via the following command.

# Syntax: git merge <branch-name>
git merge testing

If a merge conflict occurs Git will mark the conflict in the file and the programmer has to resolve the conflict manually. After resolving it, he can add the file to the staging index and commit the change.

8.4. Delete a branch

To delete a branch which is not needed anymore; you can use the following command.

#Delete branch testing
git branch -d testing
# Check if branch has been deleted
git branch

8.5. Push a branch to remote repository

By default Git will only push matching branches to a remote repository. That means that you have to manually push a new branch once. Afterwards “git push” will also push the new branch.

# Push testing branch to remote repository
git push origin testing

# Switch to the testing branch
git checkout testing

# Some changes
echo "News for you" > test01
git commit -a -m "new feature in branch"

# Push all including branch
git push

This way you can decided which branches should be visible to other repositories and which should be local branches.

9. Solving merge conflicts

A merge conflicts occurs, if two people have modified the same content and Git cannot automatically determine how both changes should be applied.

Git requires that merge conflicts are solved manually. In this section; we will first create a merge conflict and then resolve it and apply the change to the Git repository.

The following will create a merge conflict.

# Switch to the first directory
cd ~/repo01
# Make changes
touch mergeconflict.txt
echo "Change in the first repository" > mergeconflict.txt
# Stage and commit
git add . && git commit -a -m "Will create merge conflict 1"

# Switch to the second directory
cd ~/repo02
# Make changes
touch mergeconflict.txt
echo "Change in the second repository" > mergeconflict.txt
# Stage and commit
git add . && git commit -a -m "Will create merge conflict 2"
# Push to the master repository
git push

# Now try to push from the first directory
# Switch to the first directory
cd ~/repo01
# Try to push --> you will get an error message
git push
# Get the changes
git pull origin master

Git marks the conflict in the affected file. This file looks like the following.

<<<<<<< HEAD
Change in the first repository
=======
Change in the second repository
>>>>>>> b29196692f5ebfd10d8a9ca1911c8b08127c85f8

The above is the part from your repository and the below one from the remote repository. You could now edit the file manually and then commit the changes. Alternatively, you could use the git mergetool command. git mergetoolstarts a configurable merge tool that displays the changes in a split screen.

# Either edit the file manually or use 
git mergetool
# You will be prompted to select which merge tool you want to use
# For example on Ubuntu you can use the tool "meld"
# After  merging the changes manually, commit them
git commit -m "merged changes"

10. Rebase

10.1. Rebasing commits in the same branch

The rebase command allows you to combine several commits into one commit. This is useful as it allows the user to rewrite some of the commit history (cleaning it up) before pushing your changes to a remote repository.

The following will create several commits which should be combined at a later point in time.

# Create a new file
touch rebase.txt

# Add it to git
git add . && git commit -m "rebase.txt added to index"

# Do some silly changes and commit
echo "content" >> rebase.txt
git add . && git commit -m "added content"
echo " more content" >> rebase.txt
git add . && git commit -m "added more content"
echo " more content" >> rebase.txt
git add . && git commit -m "added more content"
echo " more content" >> rebase.txt
git add . && git commit -m "added more content"
echo " more content" >> rebase.txt
git add . && git commit -m "added more content"
echo " more content" >> rebase.txt
git add . && git commit -m "added more content"

# Check the git log message
git log

We will combine the last seven commits. You can do this interactively via the following command.

git rebase -i HEAD~7

This will open your editor of choice and let you edit the commit message or squashfixup the commit with the last one.

Squash will combine the commit messages while fixup will disregard the commit message.

10.2. Rebasing branches

You can also use Git to rebase two branches. As described; the merge command combines the changes of two branches. Rebase takes the changes of a branch, creates a patch and applies it to another branch.

The final result for the source code is the same as with merge but the commit history is cleaner; the history appears to be linear.

# Create new branch 
git branch testing
# Checkout the branch
git checkout testing
# Make some changes
echo "This will be rebased to master" > test01
# Commit into testing branch
git commit -a -m "New feature in branch"
# Rebase the master
git rebase master

10.3. Best practice for rebase

You should always check your local branch history before pushing changes to another Git repository or review system.

Git allows you to do local commits. This feature is frequently used to have points to which you can go back, if something should go wrong later during a feature development. If you do so you, before pushing, should look at your local branch history and validate, whether or not these commits are relevant for others.

If they all belong to the implementation of the same feature you, most likely, want to summarize them in one single commit before pushing.

The interactive rebase is basically rewriting the history. It is safe to do this as long as the commits have not been pushed to another repository. This means commits should only be rewritten as long as they have not been pushed.

If you rewrite and push a commit that is already present in other Git repositories, it will look as if you implemented something that somebody already implemented in the past.

11. Create and apply patches

A patch is a text file that contains changes to the source code. This file can be sent to someone else and this person can use this file to apply the changes to his/her local repository.

The following creates a branch, makes some changes in this branch, creates a patch and applies the patch to the master.

# Create a new branch
git branch mybranch
# Use this new branch
git checkout mybranch
# Make some changes
touch test05
# Change some content in an existing file
echo "New content for test01" >test01
# Commit this to the branch
git add .
git commit -a -m "First commit in the branch"

# Create a patch --> git format-patch master
git format-patch origin/master
# This created patch 0001-First-commit-in-the-branch.patch

# Switch to the master
git checkout master

# Apply the patch
git apply 0001-First-commit-in-the-branch.patch
# Do your normal commit in the master 
git add .
git commit -a -m "Applied patch"

# Delete the patch 
rm 0001-First-commit-in-the-branch.patch

12. Define alias

An alias in Git allows you to setup your own Git command. For example, you can define an alias which is a short form of your own favorite commands or you can combine several commands with an alias.

For example, the following defines the git add-commit command which combines git add . -A and git commit -m. After defining this command, you can use it via the git add-commit -m "message" command.

git config --global alias.add-commit '!git add . -A && git commit'

Unfortunately, defining an alias is at the time of writing this not completely supported in msysGit. You can do single aliases, e.g. ca for ca = commit -a) but you can not do ones beginning with !.

13. Untrack a file / directory

Sometimes you want to have files or directories not being included in your Git repository. If you add it to your.gitignore file, Git will stop tracking it from this moment. It will not remove it from the repository. Thus, the last version will still be in git. To untrack a file or directory in Git you can use.

# Remove directory .metadata from git repo
git rm -r --cached .metadata
# Remove file test.txt from repo
git rm --cached test.txt

This will not remove the file from the commit history. If the file should also be removed from the history, have a look atgit filter-branch which allows you to rewrite the commit history.

14. Other useful commands

The following lists a few Git commands that are useful in the daily work with Git.

Table 2. Useful Git Commands

Command Description
git blame filename Who created / modified the file
git checkout -b mybranch master~1 Creates a new branch based on the master branch without the last commit

15. Installing a Git server

As described before, you do not need a server. You can just use a file system or a public Git provider, such as Github or Bitbucket. Sometimes, however, it is convenient to have your own server, and installing it under Ubuntu is relatively easy.

First make sure you have installed ssh.

apt-get install ssh

If you have not yet installed Git on your server, you need to do this too.

sudo apt-get install git-core

Create a new user for git.

sudo adduser git

Now log on with your Git user and create a bare repository.

# Login to server
# to test use localhost
ssh git@IP_ADDRESS_OF_SERVER

# Create repository
git init --bare example.git

Now you can commit to the remote repository.

mkdir gitexample
cd gitexample
git init
touch README
git add README
git commit -m 'first commit'
git remote add origin git@IP_ADDRESS_OF_SERVER:example.git
git push origin master

16. Online remote repositories

16.1. Cloning remote repositories

Git also support remote operations. Git supports several transport types; the native protocol for Git is also called git.

The following will clone an existing repository via the Git protocol.

git clone git@github.com:vogella/gitbook.git

Alternatively you could clone the same repository via the http protocol.

# The following will clone via HTTP 
git clone http://vogella@github.com/vogella/gitbook.git 

16.2. Add more remote repositories

If you clone a remote repository, the original repository will automatically be called origin.

You can push changes to this origin repository via git push origin . Of course, pushing to a remote repository requires write access to this repository.

You can add more remote repositories to your repository via the git remote add name gitrepo command. For example if you cloned the repository from above via the Git protocol, you could add the http protocol via:

// Add the https protocol 
git remote add githttp https://vogella@github.com/vogella/gitbook.git 

16.3. Remote operations via http and a proxy

It is possible to use the HTTP protocol to clone Git repositories. This is especially helpful, if your firewall blocks everything except http.

Git also provides support for http access via a proxy server. The following Git command could, for example, clone a repository via http and a proxy. You can either set the proxy variable in general for all applications or set it only for Git.

This example uses environment variables.

# Linux
export http_proxy=http://proxy:8080
# On Windows
# Set http_proxy=http://proxy:8080 
git clone http://dev.eclipse.org/git/org.eclipse.jface/org.eclipse.jface.snippets.git
# Push back to the origin using http
git push origin

This example uses the Git config settings.

// Set proxy for git globally
 git config --global http.proxy http://proxy:8080
// To check the proxy settings
git config --get http.proxy
// Just in case you need to you can also revoke the proxy settings
git config --global --unset http.proxy

17. Git Hosting Provider

Instead of setting up your own server, you can also use a hosting service. The most popular Git hosting sites are GitHub and Bitbucket. Both offer free hosting with certain limitations.

17.1. ssh key

Most hosting provider allow to use the http protocol with manual user authentication or to use an ssh key for automatic authentication.

A ssh key has a public and private part. The public part is uploaded to the hosting provider. If you interact with the hosting provider via ssh, the public key will be validated based on the private key which is hold locally.

The ssh key is usually generated in the .ssh directory. Ensure that you backup existing keys in this directory before running the following commands.

To create an ssh key under Ubuntu switch to the command line and issue the following commands.

# Switch to your .ssh directory
cd ~/.ssh

# If the directory
# does not exist, create it via:
# mkdir .ssh 

# Manually backup all existing content of this dir!!!

# Afterwards generate the ssh key
ssh-keygen -t rsa -C "your_email@youremail.com"

# Press enter to select the default directory
# You will be prompted for an optional passphrase 
# A passphrase protects your private key 
# but your have to enter in manually during ssh operations

The result will be two files, id_rsa which is your private key and id_rsa.pub which is your public key.

You find more details for generation a rsa key on the ssh key creation in Ubuntu webpage. For Windows please seemsysgit ssh key generation .

17.2. GitHub

GitHub can be found under the URL https://github.com/. GitHub is free for all public repositories, i.e. if you want to have private repositories which are only visible to people you select, you have to pay GitHub a monthly fee.

Create an account at GitHub and create a repository. After creating a repository at GitHub you will get a description of all the commands you need to execute to upload your project to GitHub. Follow the instructions.

These instructions will be similar to the following:

Global setup:
 Set up git
  git config --global user.name "Your Name"
  git config --global user.email your.email@gmail.com

Next steps:
  mkdir gitbook 
  cd gitbook
  git init
  touch README
  git add README
  git commit -m 'first commit'
  git remote add origin git@github.com:vogella/gitbook.git
  git push -u origin master

Existing Git Repo?
  cd existing_git_repo
  git remote add origin git@github.com:vogella/gitbook.git
  git push -u origin master

17.3. Bitbucket

Bitbucket can be found under the URL https://bitbucket.org/. Bitbucket allows unlimited public and private repositories, while the number of participants for one private repository is currently limited to 5 collaborators. I.e. if you have more then 5 developers which need access to a private repository you have to pay money to Bitbucket.

18. Graphical UI’s for Git

This tutorial focused on the usage of the command line for Git. After finishing this tutorial, you may want to look at graphical tools for working with Git.

Git provides two graphical tools. gitk shows the history and git gui shows an editor that allows you to perform Git operations.

The Eclipse EGit project provides Git integration into Eclipse, which is included in the latest Eclipse release.

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